The excavations at the necropolis from 2012 to 2014 raised a number of questions about the wider context of the Panormos landscape and the intensity of usage of the area in the Archaic and other eras. In 2015, the Project Panormos team thus started an intensive pedestrian survey in the landscape around the necropolis with the aim of increasing our ‘horizontal’ and ‘diachronic’ knowledge of this part of the Milesian peninsula. The survey had three main aims:

1. To place the necropolis into landscape context.

  • Q: How big is the necropolis?
  • Q: Would intensive methods have allowed us to identify the necropolis?
  • Q: What is the relationship between the necropolis, the sanctuary of Didyma, the harbour and the ‘sacred way’?


2. To identify possible locations for the settlement and harbour associated with the necropolis

  • Q: Where was the harbour of Panormos in antiquity?
  • Q: Where is ‘Panormos’ the port, and ‘Panormos’ the settlement?


3. To place the landscape of Panormos into diachronic context

  • Q: Can we identify the source of pre-Archaic(/prehistoric) finds that turned up in excavation?
  • Q: What is the relationship of ‘Panormos’ bay, the necropolis, and the settlement at Tavşan Adası
  • Q: To what extent was this landscape used during different historical eras?


Intensive pedestrian tract-walking was used to create find density data (including areas where there were no finds) for further analysis.



Reproducible Science pilot

The survey included a novel aspect to the fieldwork programme, namely an effort to apply the tenets of ‘Reproducibility’ and ‘Open Data’ to the creation of the survey data. This involved using new digital tools (OpenDataKit, git, gitlab and R) to store data and collaborate across different working locations; and encouraging the use of data formats more suitable for reproducible analysis and long-term preservation (e.g. open analytical procedures using R).

This pilot also enabled to us to create preliminary visualizations of results very quickly after the completion of the fieldwork and finds analysis.

Survey 2015, walker lines and diagnostic finds (visualization: N. Strupler)

Survey 2015, walker lines and diagnostic finds (visualization: N. Strupler)


Remote Sensing

As part of this examination of the wider topographical situation of the necropolis, satellite images (including super-high-resolution WorldView-2) have been evaluated and compared with historical maps. This work allowed us both to track the effects of modern construction in the area of Mavişehir over the past decades, and combine it with this already-known ancient locations. Long-term it will enable us to revaluatate ancient systems of travel around the region as well as find so-far unidentified settlement areas. Neither the course of the ‘Sacred Way’ nor the actual location of the (presumed) settlement of Panormos next to the harbour is secure.

‘False colour’ satellite image showing region of Didyma and Panormos


Continue to -> Publications

( A. Slawisch • 11 Nov 2017)
A. Slawisch, 2017. Project Panormos: Survey; 11 Nov 2017. <> accessed 20 Jan 2018.